1750  51 52 53 5455 56 57 58 59  1760  61 62 63 6465 66 67 68 69  1770  71 72 73 7475 76 77 78 79  1780  81 82 83 8485 86 88 88 89  1790  91 92 93 9495 96 98 98 99  1800  01 02 03 0405 06 07 08 09  1810  11 12 13 1415 16 17 18 19  1820  21 22 23 2425 26 27 28 29  1830  31 32 33 3435 36 37 38 39  1840  41

Jun 28: Rousseau dies Year Hegel Other 1748

War of Austrian Succession ends Peace of Aachen

Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Montesquieu: On the Spirit of Laws Klopstock: Oden Klopstock: Messias Feb 6: Adam Weishaupt is born Jeremy Bentham is born


Goethe is born

Mirabeau is born


The Little Ice Age (1500-1850) reaches its peak Sep 14: The British Empire adopts the Gregorian calendar Rousseau’s essay: Discourse on the Arts and Sciences Jul 28: Johann Sebastian Bach dies Karl August von Hardenberg is born Knigge is born

1753   Benjamin Franklin invents the lightning rodLazare Carnot is born 1754

Beginning of the French and Indian War in North America

Christian Wolff dies Feb 2: Charles Maurice de Talleyrand is born Aug 23: Louis XVI is born Karl Friedrich von Steiger is born

1755   First English dictionary is published by Samuel Johnson Nov 1: Lisbon destroyed by an earthquake Winckelmann: Gedanken über die Nachahmung der griechischen Werke in der Malerei und Bildhauerkunst (“edele Einfalt und stille Größe”) Lessing: Miss Sara Sampson Montesquieu dies Nov 2: Marie Antoinette is born Nov 17: later Louis XVIII of France is born 1756   Begin of Seven Year War (Prussia vs. Austria, England vs.France) Jan 27: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is born 1757   Pantheon built in Paris Marquis de Lafayette is born Stein is born 1758   Karl Leonhard Reinhold is born May 6: Maximilian Robespierre is born Sep 29: Horatio Nelson is born 1759   Jan 15: The British Museum opens Adam Smith: Theory of Moral Sentiments Voltaire: Candide Apr 14: Händel dies Oct 28: Danton is born Baron Maximilian von Montgelas is born Friedrich Schiller is born 1760

Russian army briefly occupies Berlin and Königsberg

Claude Henri de Saint-Simon is born


Jan 16: British capture Pondicherry, India from the French

Gottlob Ernst Schulze (“Aenesidemus”) is born May 3: August von Kotzebue is born


Jan 4: England declares war on Spain & Naples Catherine the Great became empress of Russia after the death of Peter III

Mozart: first public concert in Vienna (6 years old) Rousseau: ‘Social Contract’, ‘Emile’ J.G. Fichte is born

1763    End of Seven Year War 1764   Feb 15: St. Louis(USA) is established 1765   Stamp Act Mendelsohn: Phaedon or on the Immortality of the Soul Mar 27: Franz Xaver von Baader is born Wilhelm von Humboldt is born August Wilhelm von Schlegel is born 1766   Lessing: Laocoon Feb 14: Thomas Robert Malthus is born Sep 6: John Dalton is born Niethammer is born 1767   Lessing: Minna von Barnhelm, Hamburgische Dramaturgie Georg Philipp Telemann dies Louis Antoine Léon de Saint-Just is born August Wilhelm Schlegel is born 1768   Spinning Jenny invented 1st vol. of 1st Edition of Encyclopedia Britannica published Begin of Cook’s first voyage Nov 21 Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleirmacher is born Karl Ludwig von Haller is born 1769 Sep 29: Hegel’s parents, Georg Ludwig and Maria Magdalena marry Aug 15: Napolen Bonaparte is born Alexander von Humboldt is born 1770 G.W.F. Hegel is born Captain James Cook explores the east coast of Australia and claimes it for Great Britain Kant becomes Professor in Königsberg Baron Karl Sigmund von Altenstein is born Ludwig van Beethoven is born Friedrich Hölderlin is born W.T. Krug is born J.H.K. Hengstenberg is born 1771

Beginning of the French and Indian War in North America

3rd and last vol. of 1st Edition of Encyclopedia Britannica published Discovery of Oxygen Goethe: Urfaust Aug 14: Sir Walter Scott is born Robert Owen is born


1st division of Poland

Last part of Diderot’s Enceclopedie published Lessing: Emilia Galotti Novalis is born Friedrich Von Schlegel is born

1773 his sister, Christiane, is born Hegel goes to the deutsche Schule

English Tea Act is answerd by Boston Tea Party (Dec 16) Prince Klemens Lothar Wenzel Von Metternich is born

Goethe: Götz von Berlichingen

1774   Goethe: The Sufferings of young Werther Caspar David Friedrich is born J.F.Fries is born 1775

Begin of American Independence War

Jan 22: André-Marie Ampère is born Wiliam Turner is born Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling is born

1776 entrance into Untergymnasium. birth of brother Georg Ludwig

Declaration of Independence of USA Decalration of Human Rights Benjamin Franklin 1st US ambassador in Paris May 1: Adam Weishaupt founds the Illuminati of Bavaria

Jan 10: Thomas Paine: Common Sense Smith: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations Edward Gibbon: The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Goethe: Wilhelm Meister David Hume dies Amedeo Avogadro is born Jan 24: E.T.A. Hoffmann is born Johann Friedrich Herbart is born Heinrich von Kleist born


Jun 14: Stars and Stripes adopted by Congress as United States flag Nov 15: U.S. Continental Congress approves the Articles of Confederation

Jan 2: Daniel Christian Rauch is born Feb 12: Friedrich de la Motte Fouque is born Apr 30: Carl Friedrich Gauss is born


France signes a Treaty of Alliance with the Americans

James Cook discovers Hawai Mar 30: Voltaire dies

1779   Lessing: Nathan the Wise Goethe: Iphigenie Feb 14: James Cook killed in Hawai Friedrich Carl v. Savigny is born Jun 30: Adam Müer is born 1780 Hegel takes the Landexamen for the first time

Maria Theresia (Austrian Empress) dies Joseph II begins to rule Austria

Fichte enters Jena theological seminary Lessing: Education of Mankind (Erziehung des Menschengeschlechts) Jul 1 [notJun 1]: Carl von Clausewitz is born 1781

Herschel discovers the planet Uranus May: Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft) Schiller: The Robbers (Die Räuber) Lessing dies Jan 26: Achim von Arnim is born Jan 30: Adelbert von Chamisso is born


Oct 27: Niccolo Paganini is born

1783 September 20: Hegel’s mother dies of “Gallenfieber”; Hegel also is seriously ill with it

End of American Independence War, Sept 3rd: Peace of Paris

Montgolfiers demonstrate their hot-air balloon Kant: Prolegomena Oct 29: Jean Le Rond d’Alembert dies

1784 Beginning in the autumn, Hegel is a student at the Obergymnasium

Order of Illuminati of Bavaria is forbidden by Edicts (on June 22, 1784, for its suppression) of the Elector of Bavaria (repeated in March and August 1785)

Fichte breaks off theological studies without completing degree Kant: Ideas for a universal history Kant: What is enlightment? Herder: Ideas for a Philosophy of History (1st part, other in 1785, 1787 and 1791) Denis Diderot dies Karl Friedrich Göschel is born


Jan 1: first issue of the Daily Universal Register, later known as The Times, is published in London Kant: Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals Jacobi: ‘On the teachings of Spinoza’ (Begin of the atheism debatte, starting as a debatte between Jacobi and Mendelsohn on Lessing’s suposed Spinozism) Jan 4: Jakob Grimm is born Feb 21: Karl August Varnhagen is born

1786 Centennial celebration of the Stuttgarter Gymnasium.

Friedrich II of Prussia dies

Mozart: Figaro’s wedding Kant: Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science Reinhold: Letters on the Kantian Philosophy Moses Mendelsohn dies Carl Maria von Weber is born

1787   Sep 17: United States Constitution completed

Jan 11: Herschel discovers Titania and Oberon, two moons of Uranus Kant:Second edition of the Critique of Pure Reason Friedrich Schiller: Don Carlos Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Don Giovanni Nov 15: Christoph Wilibald Gluck dies Mar 16: Georg Ohm is born

1788 September: Hegel leaves the Gymnasium; he gives the Abiturrede. October: reception in the Stift at the same time as Hölderlin. Hegel begins his study with philosophical faculty

Jan 28: First penal colony is founded at Botany Bay, Australia

Jan 1: First edition of The Times (previously The Daily Universal) Feb 1: Isaac Briggs and William Longstreet patent the steamboat Fichte accepts position as private tutor to a family in Zürich Kant: Critique of Practical Reason (Kritik der praktischen Vernunft) J.G.Hamann dies Arthur Schopenhauer is born


Beginning of the French Revolution George Washington elected as first US president

Mutiny of the ‘Bounty’ Friedrich Schiller becomes Professor of History in Jena Augustin Louis Cauchy is born

1790 Hegel shares a room in the Stift with Hölderlin and Schelling. September: Magister-Exam. Registration in the theological faculty.

District of Columbia formed Begin of construction of White House

Fichte leaves Zürich for Leipzig, where begins study of Kant Kant: Critique of Judgment (Kritik der Urteilskraft) Adam Smith dies Benjamin Franklin dies Friedrich List is born

1791 Hegel’s later wife, Marie von Tucher, is born

Begin of Haitian Revolution

Fichte travels to Warsaw to seek employment, then to Königsberg to ask Kant for financial support, then to Danzig where he works again as a private tutor Sept: Kant: On the Failure of All Attempts at a Theodicee (über das Mißlingen aller philosophischen Versuche in der Theodizee) Reinhold: The Foundation of Philosophical Knowledge Schiller begins his reading of Kant Mozart: The Magic Flute - first public performance Dec 5: W.A. Mozart dies Jan 15: Franz Grillparzer is born Apr 27: Samuel Morse is born Dec 26: Charles Babbage is born Michael Faraday is born Leopold Dorotheus von Henning is born


France becomes a Republic Begin of 1st Coalition war against France Sept 20: Cannonade of Valmy French troups conquer Belgium, the Rhinelands and Mainz

Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle composes La Marseillaise aka “Marche pour les armées du Rhin” Franz Xaver Baron Von Zach: ‘The Tables of the Sun’ Claude Chappe successfully demonstrates the first semaphore line, between Paris and Lille Fichte: Critique of All Revelation (at first assumed to be Kant’s work) F. I. Niethammer, professor of theology and philosophy at Jena, publishes a defence of Fichte’s Critique against attacks which had ensued when it was realised that Kant was not its author Reinhold: Letters on Kantian Philosophy, vol. 2. Schelling completes his Magisterdissertation Feb 29: Gioacchino Rossini is born

1793 May: the Archduke visits the Tübinger Stift; revolutionary tendencies are investigated June: theological disputation. Starting in July, Hegel is on leave from the Seminary and stays in Stuttgart Sept 19-20: Konsistorialexamen October: begins his activity as house tutor with K.F. von Steiger Hegel converts from Jacobinism to Girondism

Jan 21: Louis XVI guillotined Jul 13: Marat assassinated Oct 16: Marie Antoinette executed “Levee en masse”, organized by Lazare Carnot in Fance

In June Fichte lectures at Tübingen. He vists Berne Kant (Easter): Religion within the Boundary of Mere Reason (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft). Schiller: On Grace and Dignity (Über Anmut und Würde)


Feb 11: 1st session of US Senate open to the public Apr 4: Danton guillotined Jul 28: Robespierre guillotined

Fichte becomes successor of Reinhold as Professor in Jena Fichte: Grounding of the Entire Doctrine of Science (Grundlage der gesamten Wissenschaftslehre) Jan 16: Edward Gibbon dies May 8: Antoine Lavoisier dies Hermann Friedrich Wilhelm Hinrichs is born

1795 May: trip to Geneva Hegel subscribes ‘Die Horen’

Directorium in France “Batavian Republic” created out of French ocupied Netherlands 3rd partition of Poland

Niethammer founds ‘Philosophisches Journal’, in which many of Fichte’s essays would appear Schiller: Die Horen (until 1797) Schiller: On the aestetic education of Mankind (in ‘Die Horen’) Dec 4: Thomas Carlyle is born

1796 July: hike through the Bernese Alps August: poem ‘Eleusius’ to Hölderlin End of the year: return from Berne to Stuttgart

Nov 17: Catherine the Great of Russia dies

Schiller: On Naive and Sentimental Poetry Fichte: Foundations of Natural Law Schelling: On the possibility of a Form of Philosiophy at all Schelling: Of the I as principle of Philosophy T.G.von Hippel dies Knigge dies

1797 January: begins the Hofmeister position that Hölderlin found for him with the wine merchant J.N.Gogel in Frankfurt

May: Napoleon ends 1070 years of independence of Venice, Italy Peace of Campo Formino between France and Austria

Kant: The Metaphysics of Morals Kant: Metaphysical Foundations of the Doctrine of Right (Metaphysische Anfangsgrunde der Rechtslehre) Schelling: Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature Hölderlin: Hyperion Tieck: Puss in boots (Der gestiefelte Kater) Jan 31: Franz Schubert is born Nov 14: Charles Lyell is born Dec 13: Heinrich Heine is born

1798 Cart’s ‘On the former political relationship between Vaud and the City of Berne’ published anonymously by Hegel in Frankfurt

Helvetic Republic Pope emprisoned by the French, Vatican becomes Republic under French influence Jun 12: French take Malta July: Napoleon invades Egypt Congress of Rastatt (until 1799) 2nd Coalition war against France

Alessandro Volta and La Place discover electricity Hölderlin leaves Frankfurt Atheimsus debatte about Fichte Schelling: Of the Worldsoul Malthus: Essay on the Principle of Population Schiller: Wallenstein Beethoven: Sinfonie No. 1 Dec 4: Luigi Galvani dies Apr 26: Eugene Delacroix is born Eduard Gans is born

1799 January: death of Hegel’s father in Stuttgart. March: Hegel makes the trip back to Stuttgart

December: Napoleon named First Consul of France Baron Montgelas becomes main advisor of Bavarian King The Dutch East India Company is dissolved.

July: The Rosetta Stone is discovered         Meeting of Schelling, Schlegel brothers, Novalis and Tieck in Jena Schiller moves from Jena to Weimar         Atheism controversy: Jan: Fichte: J. G. Fichte’s Appeal to the Public concerning the Charge of Making Atheistic Assertions Mar: Fichte: Juridical Defence of the Editor of the Philosophical Journal against the Charge of Atheism Aug. Kant: ‘Open letter on Fichte’s Wissenschaftslehre’, repudiating Fichte Sep: Jacobi: ‘Open letter to Fichte’, expanded form of a letter sent to Fichte in spring Reinhold’s break with Fichte: due to Jacobi’s criticisms, and to his infatuation with Bardili’s ‘logical realism’ Fichte loses his position at Jena and Fichte moves to Berlin where he gives private lectures

        Schelling: First Plan of a System of the Philosophy of Nature Schelling: Introduction to the Sketch of a System of Naturphilosophie or on the Concept of Speculative Physics Herder: Metacritique Schleiermacher: On Religion: Speeches to its Cultured Despisers Hölderlin: Hyperion, vol. 2 George Washington dies May 20: Honoré de Balzac is born May 26: Aleksandr Pushkin is born

1800 Hegel makes a trip to Mainz, which since 1798 belongs to the French Republic

May 15: Napoleon Bonaparte crosses the Alps and invades Italy Jun 14: Battle of Marengo, Austrian troops defeated Sep 5: Malta conquered by British Dec 24: An assault on Napoleon Bonaparte fails in Paris

Invention of the voltaic pile by Alessandro Volta: the first chemical battery Infrared radiation is discovered by Herschel Schiller: Wallenstein Last publication by Kant himself Fichte: The Closed Commercial State Fichte: Destiny of Mankind Schelling: System of Transcendental Idealism Herder: Kalligone


January: Hegel moves to Jena September: first philosophical book published, The Difference Between Fichte’s and Schelling’s Systems of Philosophy Aug 27: habilitation submitted in Latin on the orbits of the planets First meetings with Goethe Hegel becomes a Privatdozent without Besoldung (remuneration)

Peace of Luneville Thomas Jefferson inaugurated as President of U.S. in new capital of Washington Union of Great Britain and Ireland

Fichte: ‘A crystal-clear report to the general public concerning the actual essence of the newest philosophy: an attempt to force the reader to understand’. He writes of Schelling as his “spiritual colleague”. Nevertheless, beginning of difficulties between Schelling and Fichte         Schelling: Exposition of My System of Philosophy Jan 1: Giuseppe Piazzi discovers the first asteroid, Ceres J. Haydn: The Seasons F. Schiller: The Maid of Orleans Novalis dies Nov 1: Vincenzo Bellini is born L. Michelet is born

1802 Hegel and F.W.J. Schelling found Critical Journal of Philosophy (until 1803) Hegel: The Relation of Skepticism to Philosophy, Faith and Knowledge

Mar 25: Peace of Amiens between France and United Kingdom Aug 2: Plebiscite confirms Napoleon Bonaparte as consul for a lifetime Sep 11: Italian region of Piedmont becomes a part of France October: French army enters Switzerland US Military Academy founded at West Point

Schelling: Giordano Bruno, or On the Divine and Natural Principle of Things Schelling: Further Presentation of my System of Philosophy A. Ruge is born Feb 26: Victor Hugo is born Jul 24: Alexandre Dumas is born Heinrich Gustav Hotho is born


Britain declares war on France Apr 30: U.S. purchases Louisiana Territory and New Orleans from the French Metternich becomes Austrian ambassador in Berlin

Robert Fulton propels a boat by steam power J.L. Tieck’s translation of Minnelieder leads to the study of old Germanic literature F. Schiller: Die Braut von Messina Klopstock dies Dec 18: Johann Gottfried von Herder dies May 12: Justus von Liebig is born Dec 11: Hector Berlioz is born

1804 Hegel becomes member of two societes for Science ofNature ‘geognostic voyage’ to the Harz mountain, also visits Göttigen and Westphalen

Jan 1: French Saint-Domingue becomes independent Republic of Haiti Code civil enacted Napoleon prepares invasion of England Dec 2: Napoleon crowns himself emperor Dec 12: Spain declares war on Great Britain

F. Hölderlin’s translations of the tragedies of Sophocles into German Jean Paul: Flegeljahre F. Schiller: Wilhelm Tell Schelling: Philosophy and Religion Schelling: System of Philosophy in General and of the Philosophy of Nature in Particular Schelling: Propädeutik der Philosophie Feb 12: Immanuel Kant dies (80) Jaques Necker dies Ludwig Feuerbach is born

1805 Hegel named to außerordentliche Professor, without remuneration

3rd coalition war against France May 26: Napoleon becomes King of Italy Oct 21: Battle of Trafalgar Dec 2: Napoleon defeats combined Russo-Austrian forces at Austerlitz

May 9: Schiller dies Oct 21: Horatio Nelson dies Apr 2: Hans Christian Andersen is born Jul 29: Charles Alexis de Tocqueville is born Mazzini is born Karl Rosenkranz is born

1806 Oct: completion of the later ‘Phenomenology of Spirit’ (except the foreword)

Jan 19: United Kingdom occupies the Cape of Good Hope Jan 30: Prussia takes possession of Hannover Holy Roman Empire dissolved by Emperor Franz II ‘Rheinbund’ created Württemberg becomes Kingdom Metternich becomes Austrian ambassador in Paris Oct 14: Prussia defeated in Battle of Jena-Auerstadt Oct 27: Napoleon occupies Berlin Britain declares blockade of French coasts Nov 21: by the Berlin Decrees, Napoleon begins the “Continental System”, closing continental ports to British vessels and and declaring all British ports to be in a state of blockade

J.F. Herbert: German Education J.G. Fichte: Bericht über die Wissenshaftslehre May 20: John Stuart Mill is born John Sterling is born Max Stirner is born

1807 Jan: finished Preface of ‘Phenomenology of Spirit’ Feb 5: birth of his illegitimate son, Ludwig Fischer March: moves to Bamberg; editor and Redakteur of the Bamberger Zeitung April: publication of the ‘System of Science: First Part: The Phenomenology of Spirit’

French troups occupy Königsberg Peace of Tilsit between Prussia and France Prussian Reforms under Prime Minister von Stein Slave trade is abolished in British empire

Fichte appointed Professor in Königsberg but leaves (for Copenhagen) when French troops threaten to occupy East Prussia. Returns to Berlin after Peace of Tilsit Garibaldi is born

1808 November: Hegel becomes rector of the Gymnasium in Nürnberg

Jan 1: Importation of slaves into US is banned Metternich new Austrian Foreign Minister Congress of Erfurt Dec 13: Madrid capitulates to Napoleon.

L. van Beethoven, 5th Symphony (op. 67) and 6th, ‘Pastoral’ Symphony J.G. Fichte: Address to the German Nation K.F. Eichhorn: History of German Law F. Schegel: Language and Wisdom of the Indians J.F. Fries: New Critique of Reason Alexander Humboldt: Opinions of Nature J.W. Goethe: Faust, pt. 1 published as book Feb 5: Carl Spitzweg is born Jan 27: David Friedrich Strauss is born


May: Napoleon captures Vienna, is excommunicated, imprisons pope Pius VII James Madison becomes the fourth President of U.S

Lamarck: Philosophie Zoologique David Ricardo: The High Price of Bullion or Proof of the Depreciation of Bank Notes J.W. Goethe: The Elective Affinities Schelling: Of the Nature of Human Freedom August Schegel: Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature May 31: Joseph Haydn dies Jan 19: Edgar Allan Poe is born Feb 3: Felix Mendelssohn Bartoldy is born Feb 12: Charles Darwin is born Feb 12: Abraham Lincoln is born Bruno Bauer is born


K.W. von Humboldt as Prussian minister of education reforms the gymnasia and institutes pre-university matriculation Berlin University founded with J.G. Fichte as rector Jun 4: Hardenberg is new Prussian Chancellor Jan 10: Marriage of Napoleon and Josephine is annulled Feb 11: Napoleon marries Marie-Louise of Austria July: Napoleon annexes the Kingdom of Holland Ostfriesland, Oldenburg, Hamburg and Bremen become French King George III of England recognized as insane

H. von Kleist: Der Prinz von Homburg J.W. Goethe: Theory of Colours (Farbenlehre) G.F. Creuzer: Symbolism of the Ancients Mar 1: Frederic Chopin is born Robert Schumann is born

1811 September: Hegel marries Marie von Tucher

Mar: Luddites destroy machinery in Nottingham and Yorkshire towns Turnvater Jahn begins to work in public

Berthold Niebuhr: Roman History J.W. Goethe: My Life, Poetry and Truth Adam Weishaupt dies Oct 22: Franz Liszt is born

1812 1st Volume of ‘Science of Logic’ published Hegel’s brother Ludwig dies in Russia First daughter Marie dies 1 month after birth

June 8: U.S. Congress approves war against Britain (the formal declaration is made 19th) June 24: Napoleon’s ill-fated invasion of Russia begins Aug 16: General William surrenders Detroit to British forces, thus postponing U.S. plan to invade Canada Sept 14: Moskau occupide by French troups Oct 19: retreat of Napoleon’s “Grand Army” due to Russian resistance, few will return alive Dec: Prussia and Russia sign Contract of Neutrality

J.G. Fichte: Transcendental Philosophy J. and W. Grimm: Fairy Tales P. Laplace: Analytic Theory of Probabilities Reinhold dies Feb 7: Charles Dickens is born

1813 Hegel named Schulrat 2nd Volume of ‘Science of Logic’ published June 7: son Karl Hegel born

Feb 28: Prussia and Russia alliance Mar 16: Prussia declares war to France Oct 16-19: Battle of Nations in Leipzig

Apr 8: Joseph Lagrange dies May 5: Soren Kierkegaard is born May 22: Richard Wagner is born Oct 9: Giuseppe Verdi us born

1814 Sept 24: son Immanuel born

April: Napoleon abdicates May 30: Napoleon exiled to Elba Vienna Congress Restoration of Ferdinand VII to the Throne of Spain Restoration of the French Bourbon Kings (Luis XVIII) Dec 24: Treaty of Ghent ends the war between Britain and U.S.

Stephenson Adapts the Steam Engine for the Railroad Görres: Rheinischer Merkur Madame Germaine de Staël: De l’Allemagne Jan 27: Johann Gottlieb Fichte dies Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin is born

1815  Hegel visits Munich (München)

Jan 8: before news of peace of Ghent, the battle of New Orleans is fought and the British are defeated within half an hour March 1: Napoleon comes back to France Jun 18: Duke of Wellington and Gebhard von Blucher defeat Napoleon at Waterloo; 22nd, Napoleon abdicates for second time, after being given choice of resignation or deposition by the French Chambers Aug 2: by agreement between Prussia, Austria, Britain and Russia, the imprisonment of Napoleon is left to the British decision and he is banished to St. Helena (where he arrives 17th) Sep 26: ‘Holy Aliance’ founded by Emperor Francis I of Austria, King Frederick William III of Prussia, and the Tsar Alexander I of Russia Nov 20: 2nd Peace of Paris Organization of the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) Organization of the German Burschenschaften

Schelling: Ages of the World T. R. Malthus: An Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of Rent F.K. von Savigny: History of Roman Law in the Middle Ages Apr 1: Otto von Bismarck is born

1816 Third volume of Science of Logic published University Professor in Heidelberg

Argentina gains independence from Spain

The “Year Without A Summer”, caused by the Mount Tambora volcanic eruption Niebuhr discovers the Institutes of Gaius in Verona K.L.v.Haller: Restauration of the Sciences of State, Vol.1 Goethe: Journey to Italy Schopenhauer: On the sight and Colors

1817 1st edition of the ‘Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences’ Coeditor of the Heidelberger Jahrbücher ‘Proceedings of the Estates Assembly in the Kingdom of Württemberg 1815-1816’

Mar 4: James Monroe is inaugurated fifth President of U.S Apr 28: Rush-Bagot Agreement is concluded between Britain and U.S. to limit naval forces on the Great Lakes Sep 23: by treaty with Britain, Spain agrees to end slave trade Oct 18: Wartburg Festival reveals revolutionary tendencies of German students who meet at Jena to celebrate anniversaries of Luther’s death and of Battle of Leipzig

David Ricardo: Principles of Political Economy and Taxation July 12: Heny David Thoreau is born Nov 30: Theodor Mommsen is born

1818 Oct 5: moves to Berlin, succeeding J.G. Fichte as professor Oct 22: inaugural lecture Nov 28: Hegel becomes a member of the Gesetzlose Gesellschaft

constitutions in the states of the German southwest Feb 12: Chile gains its independence from Spain

May 5: Karl Marx is born May 25: Jacob Burckhardt is born

1819 Hegel visits the island of Rügen

Fries influenced student Karl Ludwig Sand murders the right-wing dramatist August von Kotzebue Karlsbad Decrees Jan 17: Simon Bolivar proclaims the Republic of Colombia Feb 6: Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founds Singapore

Jun 20: First steam-propelled vessel to cross the Atlantic arrives in Liverpool from Savannah, Georgia Jacobi dies May 24: later Queen Victoria is born May 31: Walt Whitman is born Jun 20: Jacques Offenbach is born Sep 13: Clara Schumann is born

1820 Fall: Hegel travels the 1st time to Dresden

Feb 6: 86 free African American colonists sail from NY to Freeport, Sierra Leone Mar 30: Duc de Richelieu re-establishes censorship of French press Revolutions in Spain, Portugal and Neapel Argentina establishes penal colony in Falkland Islands

Jan 30: Edward Bransfield discovers Antarctica Venus de Milo found on island of Melos Hans Christian Orsted discovers relationship between electricity and magnetism Malthus: Principles of Political Economy Friedrich Engels is born

1821 October: publication of ‘Philosophy of Right’ (Naturrecht und Staatswissenschaft im Grundrisse and Gundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts) 2nd trip to Dresden Hegel becomes dean of the philosophical faculty for a one-year term.

Greece declares independence from the Ottoman Empire, starting the Greek War of Independence

Saint-Simon: On the Industrial System J. Mill: Autobiography Goethe: Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre Feb 23: John Keats dies Apr 9: Charles-Pierre Baudelaire is born May 5: Napoleon I dies on St.Helena Aug 31: Hermann Helmholtz is born Oct 13: Rudolf Virchow is born Oct 30: Fyodor Dostojevsky is born 1822 Hegel writes the preface to Hinrich’s book on the philosophy of religion Hallesche Allgemeine Zeitung publishes an attack on Hegel, and Hegel fails in his attempt to get the government to intercede for him October: 1st trip to Rhinelands, Belgium and Netherlands, visits de Ghert in Brussels

Oct 12: Pedro I declared constitutional emperor of the Brazilian Empire Dec 14: Congress of Verona ends, having ignored Greek War of Independence Hardenberg dies, Altenstein remains the only reformer (and only supporter of Hegel) in the Prussian goverment

Hieroglyphs deciphered by Thomas Young and Jean-François Champollion using the Rosetta Stone Galileo Galilei’s Dialogue taken off of the Roman Catholic Church’s list of banned books Lamarck: Natural History of Invertebrate Animals July 24: E.T. A. Hoffman dies (46) Lazare Carnot dies in Magdeburg Jan 6: Heinrich Schliemann is born Gregor Mendel is born

1823 trip to Leipzig

Monroe Doctrine

Olbers paradox described by the German astronomer Wilhelm Olbers Eckermann becomes Goethes’s private secretary Friedrich Schleiermacher: Christian Dogma Ernst Renan is born

1824 Sept/Oct: travel to Vienna via Dresden and Prague Nov 4: Hegel writes the Prussian police on behalf of Victor Cousin

Charles X becomes King of France Nov: in U.S. presidential election none of the four candidates has a majority; House of Representatives elect John Adams as president.

Beethoven: Ninth Symphony James Mill: Essays on Government Leopold von Ranke’s History of the Roman and Teutonic People, founds modern historiography J.F. Herbart: Psychology as a Science Mar 2: Bedrich Smetana is born Mar 12: Gustav Kirchhoff is born Sep 4: Anton Bruckner is born


Mar 4: John Quincy Adams is inaugurated sixth President of U.S.

Oct 26: Erie Canal opens (passage from Albany, NY to Lake Erie) Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway (first track in England) Jan 3: Robert Owen founds America’s first utopian society at New Harmony, Indiana Joseph Smith, founder of Mormons, claims he had his vision Comte de St. Simon: Nouveau Christianisme Franz Schubert: ‘Death and the Maiden’ quartet Jean Paul dies Oct 25: Johann Strauss II is born

1826 Hegel: On a Complaint on Account of a Public Slander of the Catholic Religion Hegel: ‘On the Converted’ for the Berliner Schnellpost July 23: Founding of the Jahrbücher fur wissenschaftliche Kritik Ludwig Fischer leaves the Hegel family (probable date)

University College, London, and Munich University founded First railway tunnel (Liverpool-Manchester railway) Franz Xaver von Baader becomes Professor in München F. Mendelssohn: music for A Midsummer Night’s Dream James Fenimore Cooper: The Last of the Mohicans Heinrich Heine: Pictures of Travel, I J. v. Eichendorf: Aus dem Leben eines Taugenichts Jul 4: Thomas Jefferson and John Adams die

1827 2nd, much enlarged edition of the Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences August-October: trip to Paris, vistits Lazare Carnot in Magdeburg, visits Cousin in Paris returning via Rhineland, Belgium (2nd visit to van Ghert, discusses Ludwig Fisher), Netherlands, Weimar (visits Goethe) publishes ‘On the Episode of the Mahabharata Known as the Bhagavad-Gita by Wilhelm von Humboldt’ in the Jahrbücher für wissenschaftliche Kritik

Schelling: On History of Modern Philosophy Heine: Book of Songs (Buch der Lieder) Mar 5: Pierre Simon Laplace dies (77) Mar 26: Ludwig van Beethoven dies (56)

1828 Review of Hamann’s Writings and Review of Solger in the Jahrbücher für wissenschaftliche Kritik

Thomas Carlyle’s Essay on Goethe draws attention of English readers to German literature S.T. Coleridge: Constitution of Church and State Nov 19: Franz Schubert dies (31) Feb 8: Jules Verne is born Mar 20: Henrik Ibsen is born Sep 9: Leo Tolstoy is born

1829 Hegel publishes his review of Goesschel’s ‘Aphorisms on Ignorance and Absolute Knowing’ in the Jahrbücher für wissenschaftliche Kritik September: 2nd trip to Prague; visit the spa in Karlsbad where he accidentally meets Schelling; on the return trip, he visits Goethe

Mar 4: Andrew Jackson is inaugurated President of U.S.

Aug 9: First steam locomotive runs in U.S. (Baltimore-Ohio) First edition of Encyclopedia Americana Joseph Smith publishes ‘The Book of Mormon’ James Mill: Analysis of the Human Mind Friedrich von Schlegel dies Jan 3: Konrad Duden is born Feb 2: Alfred Brehm is born

1830 Third edition of the ‘Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences’ Hegel is elected rector of the university Mar 6: lunch with the royal family during which there is a remembrance of Hölderlin June 25: Latin speech on the three hundredth anniversary of the Augsburg Confession

July Revolution in France, Louis Philippe becomes King of France Belgian Revolution Oct 4: Creation of the state of Belgium after separation from The Netherlands First Polish Rebellion Greece gains independence from the Ottoman empire

First long-distance (Manchester-Liverpool) railway begins operation Charles Lyell: Principles of Geology F.J. Stahl: Philosophy of Law Auguste Comte: Course of Positive Philosophy Dec 17: Simon Bolivar dies (47)

1831 essay ‘On the English Reform Bill of 1831’ (1st part published, 2nd part censored) Ludwig Fischer dies New reworking of Science of Logic, Volume I, inclluding new preface (appears 1832) Hegel signs contract for the publication of ‘Lectures on the Proof of God’ (later published by Marheinke) Hegel signs contract for a 2nd, reworked edition of the ‘Phenomenology of Spirit’ (rework was not completed) Nov 14: Hegel dies

Cholera enters Europe Honore de Balzac: La Comedie Humaine (The Human Comedy) Dec 27: Charles Darwin embarks aboard the HMS Beagle Goethe: Faust II Berthold Niebuhr dies Carl von Clausewitz dies Stein dies Oct 6: Richard Dedekind is born

1832 A complete edition of Hegel’s works (‘Freundesausgabe’) appears in 21 volumes between 1832 and 1845, published by the ‘Freunde des Verewigten’

US Democratic Party founded Feb 12: Ecuador annexes the Galapagos Islands Guiseppe Mazzini founds “Young Italy”.

Comte: Cours de philosophie positive, 6 vol. (Lectures on the positive philosophy) Goethe: Faust II (published after Goethe’s death) Mar 22: Goethe dies Jun 6: Jeremy Bentham dies Jan 6: Gustave Doré is born Jan 23: Edouard Manet is born Jan 27: Lewis Carroll is born Aug 16: Wilhelm Wundt is born


The Zollverein founded by Friedrich List Jan 3: Britain seizes control of the Falkland Islands Apr 3: attempt by revolutionaries in Germany to take over Frankfurt Diet in protest against articles of June 1832 is easily crushed Dec: General Trades Union in New York links all unions in one organization

Charles Babbage described his Analytical engine Discovery of the first enzyme, diastase, by Anselme Payen G.E. Schulze (“Aenesidemus”) dies May 7: Johannes Brahms is born Oct 21: Alfred Nobel is born Wilhelm Dilthey is born


Spanish Inquisition suppressed East India Company monopoly on China trade ended Fire at the British Houses of Parliament British Poor Law Amendment Act Aug 1: Abolition of Slavery in the British Colonies

Dec 23: Thomas Malthus dies Friedrich Schleiermacher dies Jan 7: Johann Philipp Reis is born Feb 7: Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev is born Jul 19: Edgar Degas is born Ernst Haeckel is born


First German railway, Nürnberg-Fürth David Friedrich Strauss: Das Leben Jesu (Life of Jesus), which holds that none of the Gospels is factually accurate A. de Tocqueville: De la Democratic en Amerique J. Grimm: German Mythology Büchner: Danton’s Death Sep 23: Vincenzo Bellini dies Wilhelm von Humboldt dies Nov 30: ‘Mark Twain’ (pseud. Of Samuel Langhorne Clemens) is born


Mar 6: Fort Alamo falls Beginning of the Chartist Movement Communist league formed in Paris

R.W. Emerson’s ‘Nature’ founds Transcendentalism Karl Immermann: Epigonen Schopenhauer: Über den Willen in der Natur (On the Will in the nature) Jan 27: Leopold von Sacher-Masoch is born Jul 8: Joseph Chamberlain is born Sri Ramakrishna is born


Victoria crowned Queen of the United Kingdom Dec 29: King of Hanover dismisses seven professors of Gottingen University, including the brothers Grimm, who oppose his revocation of Constitution

Samuel Morse invents the telegraph James Dana: System of Mineralogy Thomas Carlyle: French Revolution W.H. Prescott: Ferdinand and Isabella Immanuel H. Fichte founds ‘Zeitschrift fur Philosophie’ C. Dickens: Oliver Twist Feb 10: Alexander Pushkin dies


Start of First British-Afghan War Altenstein replaced by Eichhorn as Prussian minister of Education (no more protections of Hegelians)

Proteins discovered by Jons Jacob Berzelius Jan 16: Franz Brentano is born July 8: Ferdinand von Zeppelin is born Oct 25: Georges Bizet is born Ernst Mach is born


Jan 19: British East India Company captures Aden Jan 20: Battle of Yungay: Chile defeats a Peruvian and Bolivian alliance

First German long distance railway, Leipzig-Dresden Michael Faraday: Researches in Electricity Jan 19: Paul Cézanne is born Mar 21: Modest Mussorgsky is born Charles S. Peirce is born


Jan 22: British colonists reach New Zealand. Official founding date of Wellington Friedrich Wilhelm IV becomes new King of Prussia

R. Wagner: Faust overture J.F. Cooper: The Pathfinder E.A. Poe: Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque P.J. Proudhon: What is Property? May 14: Altenstein dies May 27: Niccolo Paganini dies Apr 2: Emile Zola is born Nov 12: Auguste Rodin is born Nov 14: Claude Monet is born


Jan 26: United Kingdom occupies Hong Kong

Schelling moves from Munich to Berlin to take Hegel’s former seat. His assignment by the new King demands him to “eradicate the Dragon Seed of Hegelianism” by his lectures Ludwig Feuerbach: Essence of Christianity Friedrich List: National System of Political Economy F.List is offered position as chief editor of the “Neue Rheinische Zeitung”. When he refuses, the position is offered to Karl Marx Rudolf Lotze: Metaphysics David Livingstone begins missionary work in Africa A.H. Hoffman: Deutschland, Deutschland über Alles T. Carlyle: On Heroes and Hero-Worship Marx: Dissertation On Demokrit and Epicur Kierkegaard: trip to Berlin, hears Schelling Kierkegaard: Master’s Thesis, ‘Über den Begriff der Ironie’ May 23: Franz Xaver von Baader dies Herbart dies Feb 25: Pierre-Auguste Renoir is born

These have been corrected and added by data from:

However, some errors may have been overlooked in the first draft. If you find some, please let us know.